The 28-year-old had been training with England ahead of the World Cup, having been named on boss Gareth Southgate's five-man standby list.
However, Tarkowski withdrew from the Three Lions camp on May 27 and went under the knife at the beginning of June, subsequently recuperating and training at Burnley's training ground.
"I've recovered really well. I'm really surprised, to be honest," Tarkowski told the official Clarets website.
"I thought it would be a bit longer before I was back outside doing work but the surgeon has done a good job and I feel probably the best I have in quite a long time. It's just getting that fitness back."
Tarkowski made 33 appearances for Sean Dyche's side last season.