Courtois was the busier of the two goalkeepers at Wembley as Chelsea ran out 1-0 winners, with Eden Hazard's first-half penalty proving to be enough to earn Antonio Conte's side the trophy.
Chelsea could only manage a fifth-place finish in the Premier League - a full 30 points adrift of champions Manchester City - but Courtois was able to take some solace in ending the season with a trophy.
"All season has been long, especially speculation about everything," the Belgian shot-stopper told BBC Sport.
"Man City were amazing but we slipped away from the top four. It's better to finish with a trophy."
Courtois will now turn his attention to the World Cup, where his Belgium team have been drawn in the same group as England.