The four-time Major winner was looking for his first green jacket and went into the final round placed in the last group with Patrick Reed, but the Northern Irishman struggled on the greens and eventually carded a 74 to finish six shots off the lead.
However, McIlroy has indicated that he will look to take the positives from another top-10 finish at the event, and feels that he will finally complete the Grand Slam later in his career.
The 28-year-old is quoted by the Daily Mail as saying: "I played probably some of the best golf I've ever played here, it just wasn't meant to be. Of course it's frustrating and it's hard to take any positives from it right now, but at least I put myself in a position, that's all I've wanted to do.
"For the last four years I've had top 10s but I haven't been close enough to the lead. Today I got myself there, I didn't quite do enough but I'll still come back next year and try again.
"I think 100% I can come back and win here. I've played in two final groups in the last seven years, I've had five top 10s, I play this golf course well. I just haven't played it well enough at the right times."