The 22-year-old did not make a single appearance for the Three Lions during their unsuccessful Euro 2016 campaign in France this summer following an up-and-down season with Everton that saw him lose his place in the side.
However, Stones has started six of seven Premier League matches since his big-money move to Manchester City, and Cahill believes that the future is bright for his fellow centre-back.
"John is very young and developing as a player. Everyone knows his ability and there is no reason he won't go on to be a huge player for England," he told reporters.
"We did well against Slovakia, kept clean sheet. We had the majority of the play and the ball so defensively there was not much to do.
"For him getting on the ball and going forward was very comfortable, it allowed him to be freed up and me to organise things from the back."
Stones and Cahill are expected to resume their partnership during the upcoming World Cup qualifiers against Malta and Slovenia.