Harry Kane and Son Heung-Min had given Spurs a 2-0 lead at half time but goals from Gary Cahill and Eden Hazard ensured that the Foxes completed one of the greatest fairytales in the history of English football.
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Chelsea had an early opportunity through Cahill who sent a header wide of the post, before up the other end Danny Rose saw a 25-yard drive go inches over the crossbar.
Tensions were running high with tackles flying in from all angles but the first clear-cut chance did not arrive until the 27th minute when Cesc Fabregas placed a shot marginally wide of the far post.
Son, Harry Kane and Diego Costa all had decent opportunities over a five-minute period before Spurs took the lead with 10 minutes of the half remaining, when Kane latched on to a pass from Erik Lamela before rounding Asmir Begovic and tapping home.
Chelsea attempted to respond but a minute before the interval, Spurs doubled their advantage when Christian Eriksen released Son who coolly finished past Begovic from inside the penalty area.
As the first half drew to a close, Rose and Willian squared up to each other and in the confrontation that ensued, Mousa Dembele appeared to rake at the eyes of Costa but the incident was not seen by the referee.
Guus Hiddink introduced Hazard at half time but it was Spurs who continued in the ascendancy after the restart, with Kane curling a shot into the grateful hands of Begovic.
Son also went close with a low strike from the edge of the penalty area but Chelsea pulled a goal back just before the hour mark when Cahill was given time to control a corner from Willian before volleying into the net from 10 yards.
Hazard was acting as Chelsea's bright spark and he started a move that ended with Willian having an opportunity to find an equaliser for Chelsea, but his first touch was heavy and his shot too tame to test Hugo Lloris.
As the game entered the closing stages, substitute Ryan Mason had the opportunity to seal the three points for Spurs after receiving the ball on the edge of the penalty area but his resulting shot was too close to Begovic and the Bosnian was able to make a comfortable save.
Six minutes later, Chelsea capitalised by scoring a stunning equaliser through Hazard, who collected Costa's pass before finding the top corner from just inside the penalty area.
Spurs were left deflated and instead of mounting an assault on the Chelsea goal, they found themselves fortunate to end the game with 11 men on the pitch.
Lamela was lucky to avoid being sent off for a stamp on Fabregas's hand while Eric Dier was fortunate to avoid two yellow cards in quick succession during added-on time.
In the end, their reprieve mattered little as Chelsea easily saw out the remaining minutes to deny Spurs the opportunity to extend the title race until the final two games of the campaign.