The 42-year-old, who has spent the last two years as Australia's assistant coach and lead batting coach, has agreed a three-year contract with Surrey.
"It has been a huge honour and privilege to have worked with the Australian team but the chance to come to a club of the size and potential of Surrey as head coach was too big an opportunity for me to turn down," Di Venuto told the county's official website.
"As someone who has always enjoyed the county game, I have followed Surrey's progress over the last couple of years and look forward to working with this talented squad of players."
Surrey director of cricket Alec Stewart added: "Following the departure of Graham Ford it was vitally important that we found another high quality coach with a great work ethic and excellent knowledge of the English county game.
"Michael is a good people person and his twelve years of county experience will be invaluable. He is highly regarded within the Australian setup for his ability to work with and get the best out of players both individually and collectively.
"Being able to appoint a coach from a top quality International team can only serve to benefit the club and I would like to thank Cricket Australia for their professional dealings and understanding in enabling us to make this appointment in time for the start of the new season."
Di Venuto will join up with the team at the start of April ahead of Surrey's opening game against Nottinghamshire at Trent Bridge on April 10.