Wet conditions in London throughout the day saw the match called off shortly before 4.50pm, with the 6pm cutoff for play to start quickly approaching.
The umpires decided to take an early lunch, moving the scheduled break ahead by 30 minutes, but with no respite from the rain, the decision was taken to abandon the action 45 minutes after the tea break.
The remaining four days will consist of 96 overs each to make up for lost time, though more rain is forecast in the region over the weekend.
The last time that a whole Test match day was lost to the weather at Lord's was in May 2001, against Pakistan, while the last Test washout in England was at The Oval on day four in the 2013 Ashes.
England lead 1-0 in the five-match series after a thrilling 31-run win at Edgbaston last week.