The 30-year-old dominated his Italian opponent throughout the fight, winning 100-90 on all three judges' scorecards to extend his unbeaten professional record to 27-0 with 19 knockouts.
Wilder, who interrupted Fury's weigh-in on Friday, was in attendance at Windsor Park to watch the Mancunian go the full 10 rounds against Pianeta.
Fury, who made his boxing comeback two months ago with victory against Sefer Seferi, squared up with Wilder in the ring afterwards as the two fighters announced a bout.
Although no date or venue was announced, promoter Frank Warren told the sellout crowd of 25,000 fans in Belfast that there would be more news next week.
Fury did appear to suggest that the bout would be in Las Vegas, while a number of reports have claimed that the pair will fight in November or December.