Curry returned from an injury-enforced 58-game spell on the sidelines on Thursday only to be ruled out two days later with the flu.
In his absence, Damion Lee scored 24 points, Eric Paschall claimed 23 – including a pair of crucial free-throws in the last minute – and Marquese Chriss recorded 13 points, 10 rebounds and eight assists as Golden State scored their first home win since January 18.
The Warriors, who brought the NBA's worst winning record into their meeting with the Eastern Conference's sixth-placed side, trailed at every break, including by eight points at three-quarter time, but finished strongly with a 36-24 final term.
Tobias Harris top scored with 24 points for the 76ers, while Al Horford finished with 22 and made 10 rebounds.
The Charlotte Hornets held on after a strong start to beat the visiting Houston Rockets 108-99.
The Hornets led 20-0 after a stunning opening burst and by 30-17 after the first quarter but were only six in front at the last break.
They held off the more-fancied Rockets to seal a sixth win in 11 games as Terry Rozier finished with 24 points, Devonte Graham 23 and PJ Washington 22.
James Harden celebrated a triple double – 30 points, 10 rebounds and 14 assists – for the Rockets but without fellow star Russell Westbrook was unable to lead his team to victory as they suffered their third-straight defeat.
Denver blitzed the first quarter 33-23 and the Cavs fought back to trail by just three points at half-time before they led by two at the final break, while the two teams matched strides through the last quarter.
Kevin Love claimed 27 points for Cleveland with Collin Sexton adding 25 and Cedi Osman 20, while Will Barton top scored with 22 for the Nuggets.
Elsewhere, the Utah Jazz extended their winning streak to five games with a 111-105 victory over the Detroit Pistons, the Memphis Grizzlies returned to winning ways with a 118-101 triumph over the Atlanta Hawks and the Sacramento Kings saw off the Portland Trail Blazers 123-111.